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Advanced Greek Resources

Library Resources for Students of Advanced Greek

at Cincinnati Christian University

Scott Lloyd, Assistant Director of Library Services, Cincinnati Christian University

Texts and Textual Criticism

The Greek New Testament. K. Aland, B. Metzger, et al., editors. 4th ed. New York: United Bible Societies, 1994. (UBS)

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The edition with the dictionary appended to it (available in the CCU bookstore) is the most useful for Greek students.  This edition limits itself to providing only the most significant textual variations.  This edition is often referred to as the “UBS edition.” An online version of the text can be accessed for free at:

Novum Testamentum Graece. E. Nestle, K. Aland, et al., editors. 28th ed. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2012.

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The latest edition of this critical Greek New Testament provides a thorough revision of the text-critical apparatus, and it provides a revision of the text of the “Catholic Letters” or general epistles.  This edition is often referred to as the “Nestle-Aland” edition.  The major difference between the two editions is that the text-critical apparatus of the UBS edition is edited primarily to meet the needs of Bible translators, whereas the apparatus of Nestle-Aland is edited primarily to meet the needs of textual critics. An online version of the text can be accessed at:

Aland, Kurt and Barbara Aland. The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism. ET; 2nd ed. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1989.

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One of the standard introductions to the science of textual criticism.

Metzger, Bruce Manning. A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament: A Companion Volume to the United Bible Societies’ Greek New Testament. 3rd ed. New York: United Bible Societies, 1975.

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Metzger is one of the world’s leading New Testament scholars of the modern era, specializing in textual criticism of the Greek New Testament. In this volume, Metzger discusses the textual variants in the UBS text and explains the decisions made by the editors of the text. Performing an author search for “Metzger, Bruce” in the CCU library catalog will lead to other useful works on the subject of textual criticism.


Danker, Frederick W. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. 3rd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000. (BAGD or DBAG)

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This is the most important lexicon for New Testament studies. Students inquiring about the meaning of Greek words used by NT authors must consult this volume. It is available in the reference section of the library. It is also available electronically via Bibleworks, Logos, and Accordance Bible software programs.

For various reasons, the CCU library also provides older editions of this reference work. However, unless you are otherwise instructed by your professor, always refer to the most recent edition.

Liddell, Henry, Robert Scott, and Henry Stuart Jones. A Greek-English Lexicon. 9th rev. ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. (LSJ)

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The standard lexicon for investigating the meaning of a word in Classical Greek usage. If one wishes to learn more about the usage of a term outside of Biblical Greek, this is the place to start.

Louw, Johannes P., and Nida, Eugene, eds. Greek-English Lexicon to the New Testament: Based on Semantic Domains. 2nd ed. New York: United Bible Societies, 1999.

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A lexicon that groups together words used in the Greek New Testament that have similar ranges of meaning, or “semantic domains.”  This tool is helpful for understanding both the similarities as well as the differences between two words with overlapping ranges of meaning. Thus, for example, a student could use this work to better understand the range of meaning for agapao, both how it overlaps with other words that mean “love,” as well as its distinctive usage over against other such words.

Lust, Johan, E. Eynikel, K. Hauspie, and G. Chamberlain. A Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint. Rev. ed. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2008.

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A recognized standard for understanding the usage of Greek vocabulary in the Septuagint. Liddell and Scott also covers the LXX, but if you are looking exclusively for LXX usage, this resource is more efficient to use.

Moulton, James Hope, and George Milligan. The Vocabulary of the Greek Testament: Illustrated from the Papyri and Other Non-Literary Sources. Reprint. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1950.

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This reference work, initially published in 1915, helped to pioneer a new area of research in New Testament lexicography. Beginning with Adolf Deissman’s classic work, Bible Studies, scholars at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century began to investigate what bearing Greek papyri and non-literary documents might have on understanding the language of the New Testament. Moulton & Milligan (as this reference work is popularly cited) is arranged as a dictionary, but draws exclusively from this body of evidence rather than the literary documents that other lexicons cite. Since Moulton and Milligan published their work, there have been additional discoveries and research that have shed further light on the vocabulary of the NT, and thus their work needs to be updated. Two classics scholars, G. H. R. Horsley and John A. L. Lee, have been working on an updated volume called A Lexicon of the New Testament with Documentary Parallels. In the pages of Filologia Neotestamentaria (website:, the authors have published some preliminary entries of their work in two articles. Those articles can be accessed here: and here:

Spicq, Ceslas. Theological Lexicon of the New Testament. Reprint. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1994.

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An important work originally published in French in 1978. The author presents a wealth of lexical evidence from classical and papyri sources.

Concordance (See Also: Bible Software)

Bachmann, H., and W. Slaby, eds. Computer-Konkordanz zum Novum Testamentum Graece. New York: De Gruyter, 1980.

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A thorough concordance based on the 26th edition of the Nestle-Aland text. Though the preface to the concordance is in German, there is a set of instructions for using the concordance written in English.

Kohlenberger, John R., Edward W. Goodrick, and James A. Swanson. The Exhaustive Concordance to the Greek New Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1995.

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One of the more serviceable Greek concordances in print. The average student would be much better off with concordance software, such as Bibleworks, or Logos, but this volume is useful if you do not have any electronic options.

Word Studies

Balz, Horst, and Gerhard Schneider, eds. Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament. 3 vols. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1990. (EDNT)

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The most recent, though not necessarily the overall best, of the word study dictionaries. Consult alongside NIDNTT and TDNT.

Brown, Colin. New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology. 4 vols. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1986. (NIDNTT)

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A very useful Greek dictionary that provides background on the classical, LXX and New Testament usage of words found in the New Testament. The dictionary is organized alphabetically by English words; thus, users will sometimes need to use the Greek index in volume 4 to find the place or places in the dictionary where a particular Greek word is discussed.

Gilbrant, Thoralf, and Ralph W. Harris, eds. The Complete Biblical Library: New Testament. Springfield, MO: The Complete Biblical Library 1986-1991.

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Though the dictionary articles are quite uneven in quality, this reference work can be helpful in accessing information in other Greek reference works. Most dictionary articles include exact references where discussions of a word can be found in other reference works.

Kittel, Gerhard, and Gerhard Friedrich, eds. Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Trans. Geoffrey W. Bromiley. 10 vols. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964-. (TDNT)

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Though this work has been maligned by some scholars in recent decades, it should not be ignored, but rather used with caution. The first four volumes were edited by Gerhard Kittel, and these volumes are uneven in quality. Some of the articles in those volumes are guilty of committing linguistic fallacies, and have been appropriately critiqued in James Barr’s now classic volume, The Semantics of Biblical Lanugage. Volumes 5-9 were edited by Gerhard Friedrich, and the quality of scholarship is improved over the first four volumes. Despite its faults, it is an important work in modern NT scholarship and should not be ignored.


Blass, Friedrich, A. Debrunner, and Robert W. Funk. A Greek Grammar of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. A translation and revision of the 9th-10th German ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961. (BDF)

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An important reference grammar, though now somewhat dated. Nevertheless, nothing else has been published yet to take its place, and it should be consulted be serious students. Not terribly user-friendly, but does contain a helpful scripture index for locating syntactical comments on particular passages.

Smyth, Herbert Weir. Greek Grammar. Rev. by Gordon M. Messing. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1984.

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Though its primary subject is the grammar of Classical Greek, this now famous reference volume is an extremely helpful resource for the advanced Greek student. Students can make good use of this volume in the task of understanding the historical background of ancient Greek.

Wallace, Daniel. Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996.

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A thorough discussion of Greek syntax. Zondervan published an abridged version of this book in 2000, but the 1996 edition is much more useful as a reference grammar, as it contains a more thorough presentation of noun cases and verb tenses.

Other Reference Works:

Primary Texts (Greek Texts; English Translations)

Loeb Classical Library.

Located in the reference section of the CCU library, these volumes are readily identified by their distinctive green or red covers. The volumes with the green covers are the Greek authors; the red volumes are Latin authors. Each green volume contains the Greek text of one or more works by a classical Greek author, along with a parallel English translation. The texts are indexed with a numbering system that is standard numbering system used by many classical reference works, thus facilitating the process of locating particular words or phrases in the text. Note: Harvard University Press is in the process of revising the entire series as well as publishing brand new volumes. If you are looking for the text of a particular Greek work, be mindful of the fact that more than one edition of the text may be available in the series. In most cases you will want to use the more recent edition of a text. For example, Harvard has just recently released a new edition of the apostolic fathers, translated by Bart Ehrman (Search in the CCU Catalog:, which supersedes the old edition translated by Kirsopp Lake (Search in the CCU Catalog: .

New Documents Illustrating Early Christianity. Macquarie University: Ancient History Documentary Research Centre, 1981-.

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This series, published by the Ancient History Documentary Research Centre at Macquarie University, provides original text and English translations of texts from Greek papyri and inscriptions. A brief commentary follows each text, highlighting ways in which each text assists in understanding elements of Biblical Greek.

Perseus Project

This free online digital library contains a wealth of full-text material for the study of Greek texts and the Greek language, as well as other resources for studying the classical world. Many ancient Greek texts can be accessed on the site, in both the original language as well as an English translation. The site also allows for keyword searching, and provides access to lexical and morphological tools.

To browse a list of all the primary and secondary sources for the study of Greek available on the Perseus web site, go to this page:

TLG: Thesaurus Linguae Graecae

This electronic resource provides access to most Greek texts from the time of Homer to the fall of Byzantium in AD 1453. The CCU library provides access to a web-accessible version of this database that can be accessed on the CCU Library web site. With third-party software, the texts can be searched in a variety of ways. Very useful for locating particular words or phrases in ancient Greek texts.

The canon of authors represented in the TLG database can be searched from the home page of the TLG website:

Useful Commentaries for Greek Exegesis

All of these commentaries, as well as many others, are available in the CCU Library. All of these commentary sets are suitable for use in exegetical research. They represent a variety of interpretive approaches to the text. They also represent a wide range of theological perspectives, ranging from conservative to progressive.

Anchor Bible Commentary Series.

Hermeneia—A Critical and Historical Commentary on the Bible.

International Critical Commentary Series.

New International Greek Testament Commentary Series.

Word Biblical Commentary Series.

Research Guides

Carson, D. A. Exegetical Fallacies. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1996.

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Carson, with clear explanations and plenty of real-life examples, demonstrates the ways that Greek etymology and grammar can be misused in exegesis. A very useful guide to understanding how NOT to apply your knowledge of Biblical Greek!

Carson, D. A. New Testament Commentary Survey. 6th ed. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 2007.

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A handy, concise guide to modern commentaries on the New Testament. In a straightforward, pull-no-punches style, Carson evaluates the usefulness of both commentary sets as well as individual commentaries.

Danker, Frederick W. Multipurpose Tools for Bible Study. Rev. and expanded ed. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2003.

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Danker, of BAGD fame (see above under “Lexicons”), provides a comprehensive list and analysis of various tools for studying the Bible in its original languages. A helpful guide to knowing what tools are at your disposal.

Silva, Moises. Biblical Words and Their Meaning: An Introduction to Lexical Semantics. Rev. and expanded ed. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1994.

Silva, Moises. God, Language, and Scripture: Reading the Bible in the Light of General Linguistics. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1990.

Cotterell, Peter, and Max Turner. Linguistics and Biblical Interpretation. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1989.

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Silva 1:

Silva 2:

Cotterell and Turner:

Serious students of Greek will want to expand their knowledge of how language works, which means they will want to investigate the field of linguistics. All three of the above volumes are reliable guides to the field, and also helpful for understanding how to apply principles of linguistics to Biblical studies. Start with one of the Silva books as an introduction, and then peruse Cotterell and Turner for a slightly more in-depth presentation.

Journal Literature

ATLA Religion Database

On-Campus Access:

Off-Campus Access:

The premier database for journal research in Biblical studies. Currently, ATLA indexes over 700 journals in the areas of Biblical studies, theological studies, religious studies, and practical ministries.

The CCU library’s subscription to ATLA, also provides access to several full-text articles within the database. Articles not available via full-text links can be accessed in the library’s print collection of via interlibrary loan.

ATLA provides keyword searching ability, as well as the ability to search by Scripture passage. When you choose the Scripture searching function, remember that the citations are arranged digitally rather than numerically. Also, books such as I Corinthians are listed as “Corinthians, 1st.” It is best to begin your search as broadly as possible. Or, you can combine a keyword search and a scripture citation search using the basic search box. Example: “glossolalia and SC Corinthians.”

ATLA does provide special indexing that facilitate searching for articles on particular Greek terms. To search for a particular Greek word, use the following search syntax: “Greek language—terms—agape.” In place of “agape” in the previous search string, type in a transliteration of the Greek term by which you wish to search. You can also go to “Indexes.” Once there, from the pull down menu, select “Subjects All,” and then type in the search box “Greek Language—Terms.” This will also you to browse the full list of Greek words that have been indexed in the database.

All-Purpose Bible Software with Emphasis on Original Languages


Serious students will want to make this a priority purchase. Providing sophisticated searching technology and a wealth of language tools, this all-purpose Bible software will facilitate your research in dramatic ways. Version 7.0 is soon to be released, and will be available in the CCU Bookstore. Though it is designed for us on a PC, it will work on a MAC running a Windows emulator.


Hailed by MAC users as the first choice for Bible study software for the MAC platform. According to the vendor website, this software can be run on a PC using an emulator. The vendor is also in the process of developing a Windows version.


One of the most popular Bible study software programs available. A range of core packages is available. Once a core package is purchased, additional resources can be purchased and added to the core library. A large collection of Biblical Greek reference works is available for purchase from the Logos library.

Free or Nearly Free Resources:

There are many out there, such as the theWord ( , but you get what you pay for. The tools and searching capabilities are not of the same quality as the resources listed above. Please understand that many of the free Bible study websites are providing electronic access to published reference works that are now in the public domain, which means that they are 100 or more years old. While these resources may yet have limited value to Greek research, they cannot be used to the exclusion of newer—and in most cases better—resources.

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